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“英语国家概况”考核目标及样题

2006-01-18 00:00:00 |  作者: cheng |   来源: 中国考试  |  查看:

一、考核目标(一)英国概况I. Land and PeopleDifferent names for Britain and its partsGeographical features of BritainRivers and lakes in BritainBritain's climate and factom that influence itDistribution and composition of Britain' s populationCharacteristics of the English, Welsh, Scots and IrishImmigrants in BritainII. Origins of the NationEarliest settlers in BritainArrival and settlement of the CeltsRoman influence on Britain and its limitationsBasis of modem English race: the Anglo - SaxonsViking and Danish invasionsKing Alfred and his contributionsNorman Conquest and its consequencesIII. Shaping of the NationEngland' s feudalism under the rule of William the ConquerorKing Henry II and his reformsConflict between King Henry II and Thomas BecketContents and significance of the Great CharterOrigins of the English ParliamentThe Hundred Years' War with France and its consequencesConsequences of the Black DeathThe Peasant Uprising of 1381 and its aignificanceIV. Transition of the Modern AgeThe nature and consequences of the Wars of the RosesHenry VIII and the English reformationElizabeth I and ParliamentElizabeth' s religious reform and her foreign policyDistinctive features of the English Renaissance Absolute rule of James IThe Gunpowder plot of 1605The Civil Wars and their consequencesThe Commonwealth under Oliver CromwellThe Restoration and the 'Glorious Revolution'V. Rise and Fall of the British Empire Whigs and Tories Agricultural changes in the late 18th century The English Industrial Revolution and its impact on the development of Britain The Chartist Movement and its consequences The origin of the Labour Party The building of the British Empire Britain and the First World War Britain and the Second World War Postwar Britain ThatcherismVI. British EconomyEvolution of the British economy since WW IIMeasures taken by Mrs Thatcher's governmentReasons for the decline of Britain's industriesCharacteristics of Britain's agricultureImportance of trade in the British economyVII. Government and AdministrationThe British ConstitutionConstitutional Monarchy in BritainBritish Parliament of its functionsBritish governmentCabinet and the principle of collective responsibilityRole of the Privy Council in history and todayPrincipal government departments in BritainTwo tiers of local government and their responsibilitiesVIII. Justice and LawPrimary sources of British lawCommon features of British lawCriminal courtsCourts of AppealCivil courtsJudiciary in BritainThe British policeTreatment of offendersIX. Social AffairsBritain' s health services Benefits and pensions Religion in British society Festivals and public holidays in BritainX. Cultural Affairs The education system in Britain The college system and the tutorial system Quality papers and popular papers The BBC and its programs Sports in Britain Major forms of art in Britain(二)美国概况I. Geography Geographical features of the United States of America Rivers and lakes America' s climate and factors that influence ii Geographical regions and their characteristicsII. Population, Race and Ethnic Groups Characteristics of the American population Three waves of immigration Four great population movements Race relations in the U. S. Black people and the Civil Rights Movement Role of the Chinese - Americans in the development of the U. S. Social and economic conditions of the Indians White ethnics in the U. S.III. American History ( 1600 - 1900 ) The 'discovery' of the New World Causes of the colonization of the New World The original 13 colonies American War of Independence and its consequences Establishment of a federal form of government The War of 1812 and its impact on the development of the U.S. Consequences of territorial expansion and the westward movement The American Civil War and its impact on the development of the U.S. Rapid growth of capitalism after the Civil WarIV. American History ( 1900 - 1945 ) Economic growth in the early 20th centuryProgressivism and some of the reform effortsAchievements under President Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow WilsonRole of the U.S. in WW ICharacteristics of the 1920sEffects of the Great Depression on American societyFranklin Roosevelt and the New DealAmerica in WW IIV. America in Postwar Era ( 1945- 1980 ) Origins of the Cold War The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan Consequences of the Berlin Blockade Effects of McCarthyism on American society The Civil Rights Movement and its significance Postwar boom in the U.S. U.S. and the Vietnam War U.S.-China relations (1949-1972) Counterculture in the U. S. New rights and their programVI. U.S. Economy Factors that contribute to the fast growth of the economy Characteristics of the U. S. economy Favourable conditions for agriculture Major agricultural regions Problems with U. S. agriculture Major industrial regions and their economic activities Importance of foreign trade Problems facing the U.S. economyVII. Political Institutions A workable form of government under the Constitution Separation of powers with cheeks and balances under the Constitution Safeguards for individual liberty under the Constitution Provisions for amendment Powers of the American President The election of the American President Powers of the House of Representatives Powers of the Senate The judicial system The two - party system and the characteristics of the two major partiesVIII. Education Characteristics of American education Elementary and secondary education in the U. S. Different types of colleges and universities The admission system in U. S. universities The role of the community college Continuing education Education reform in the 1980s and early 1990sIX. Literature, Architecture and Music Major American writers and their works Harlem Renaissance and black writing in American literature American architecture Different types of popular music in the U. S.X. Holidays and Festivals New Year's Day celebration in the U.S. Martin Luther King's Day Lincoln's Birthday and Washington' s Birthday Practices of Valentine's DayEaster in the U.S.Memorial Day and Veteran's DayIndependence DayHalloweenThanksgiving DayChristmas(三)加拿大,澳大利亚,新西兰和爱尔兰概况I. CanadaCanada's geography and historyCanada's geographical featuresGeographical regions and their characteristicsEuropean discovery of CanadaThe rivalry between the British and FrenchSelf - government and the founding of the ConfederationCanada in WW I and WW IIII. AustraliaAustralia's geographical featuresAustralia's geographical structureFactors that affect Australia's climateComposition of Australia's populationAustralia's built environmentPolitical divisions in AustraliaIII. New ZealandNew Zealand's geographyCharacteristics of New Zealand climate Native plants and animals Historical background of New Zealand The Treaty of Waitangi 1840 Characteristics of Maori culture (Manritanga)IV. Ireland Ireland's geographical features Climate in Ireland Ethnic composition of Ireland Languages in Ireland Irish Catholicism Conflict between the English and the Irish The issue of Northern Ireland二、题型及样卷:选择题(40题,每题1分,共40分)1. Britain is separated from the continent of Europe by __________ A. the Pacific OceanB. the English ChannelC. the Irish SeaD. the British Isles2. Britain' s recorded history begins with __________ A. the Roman invasionB. the Anglo - SaxonsC. the Vikings and Danish invasionsD. the Norman Conquest 3. __________ is perhaps the best - known event in English history.A. The Norman Conquest of 1066B. The Great Charter of 1215C. The Hundred Years'War with FranceD. The English Renaissance4. In Britain, __________ were the forerunners of the Conservative Party.A. the WhigsB. the PuritainsC. the ToriesD. the Anglos5. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a __________ A. republicB. federationC. feudal stateD. unitary state6. In Britain, the Free Churches refer to __________A. the Church of EnglandB. the Presbyterian ChurchC. the Church of ScotlandD. some of the Protestant Churches7. As a result of the industrial revolution, Britain became __________ A. "the shop of the world"B. "the centre of the world"C. "the factory of the world"D. "the leader of the world"8. __________ is generally regarded as the greatest writer in the English language.A. Christopher MarloweB. William ShakespeareC. Edmund SpenserD. Charles Dickens9. In Britain, the powers of the king were limited by __________, presented to the king in 121S.A. the Magna CartaB. the British constitutionC. the Bill of RightsD. the Petition of Right10. During the British Civil Wars (1642 -51 ), the supporters of Parliament were called __________ A. CavaliersB. RoyalistsC. FederalistsD. Roundheads11. In Britain, the prime minister is the leader of the party that holds the most seats in __________ A. the House of LordsB. the House of CommonsC. the SenateD. the House of Representatives12. In Britain, Parliament is elected roughly __________ A. every three yearsB. every four yearsC. every five yearsD. every six years13. The City of London is regarded as __________ of London.A. the centreB. the heartC. the political centreD. the business centre14. __________ is regarded as the national game of England.A. CricketB. RugbyC. BoxingD. Football15. In Britain, private schools or independent schools are called __________ A. grammar schoolsB. high schoolsC. public schoolsD. state schools16. Who is still regarded as the symbolic head of the Commonwealth of Nations?A. The US presidentB. The British Monarch.C. The Speaker of British ParliamentD. The Secretary General of the UN.17. With regard to its size, the USA is the __________ country in the world.A. largestB. second largestC. third largestD. fourth largest18. In America, the first English colony was founded at __________ in 1607.A. Jamestown, VirginiaB. Plymouth, MassachusettsC. New AmsterdamD. Boston, Massachusetts19. The first immigrants in American history came from __________ and __________ .A. Ireland/FranceB. England/ChinaC. Seotland/EnglandD. England/the Netherlands20. The Paris Conference in 1919 was dominated by __________ A. the US, Germany, France and BritainB. Germany, France, Britain and ItalyC. the US, Britain, France and ItalyD. the US, Britain, China and Germany21. The two newest states which joined the United States are __________ A. Alaska and FloridaB. Hawaii and OregonC. Alaska and Hawaii.D. California and New Mexico22. The British established 13 colonies along __________ A. the west coast of North AmericaB. the west coast of South AmericaC. the east coast of North AmericaD. the east coast of South America23. The Emancipation Proclamnation Was issued by __________ during the Civil War.A. George WashingtonB. Abraham LincolnC. Thomas JeffersonD. Franklin Roosevelt24. In the United States, the Midwest is the nation' s centre of __________ A. electronics industryB. heavy industryC. agricultureD. light industry25. The two famous leaders of black movements in the U.S. in the 60s are __________ A. Doushs and GarrisonB. Douglas and Martin Luther KingC. Martin Luther King and Malcolm XD. Malcolm X and Garrison26. Which branch of the American government has the power to interpret the Constitution?A. The Supreme Court.B. The President.C. The House.D. The Senate.27. Although tobacco is grown in many countries, the United States is the world's __________ producer and user of this profitable crop.A. biggestB. second biggestC. third biggestD. fourth biggest28. The 1920s in the U. S. has been described as a period of __________ A. cultural revivalB. loss of purposeC. development in science and technologyD. material success and spiritual frustration29. Among the following authors, the one who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, is __________ A. T. S. i EliotB. Emily DickonsonC. Walt WhitmanD. Richard Wright30. The legal holiday obearved annually in the U.S. on the fourth Thursday of November is __________ A. Independence DayB. Thanksgiving DayC. Washington's BirthdayD. Halloween31. Which of the following groups are the Spanish -- speaking population of the United States?A. The Indians.B. The Asian Americans.C. The Puritans.D. The Hispanics.32. The Bill of Rights is the term used for the first __________ amendments to the Constitution of the United States.A. fiveB. sevenC. tenD. fifteen33. In terms of area Canada is the __________ country in the world.A. largestB. second largestC. third largestD. fourth largest34. In 1867 __________ was passed creating the Dominion of Canada.A. the British North America ActB. the Act of UnionC. the Quebec ActD. the Statute of Westminster35. __________ is the oldest of the Australian states because it was the first colony established by Britain in 1788.A. VictoriaB. New South WalesC. South AustraliaD. Queensland36. The original inhabitants of Australia are called __________ A. MaorisB. AboriginesC. IndiansD. Eskimos 37. __________ is an integral and pervasive influence on national life and culture of Ireland.A. ProtestantismB. CatholicismC. Calvinist doctrineD. Idealism38. In Ireland, the constitution provides for both __________ as official languages.A. English and WelshB. English and FrenchC. Irish and FrenchD. Irish and English 39. The largest city in New Zcaland is __________ A. WellingtonB. ChristchurchC. HamiltonD. Auckland40. New Zealand's national day is the day when __________ was signed in 1840.A. the Treaty of WaitangiB. the Peace TreatyC. the Land ActD. the New Zealand Constitution简答题(10题,每题3分,共3O分)1. What are the two large islands that make up the British Isles?2. Who were the first known settlers of Britain?3. Who owns the most important newspapers in the UK?4. Why does the United States have an ideal location for trade?5. Why was America named after Amerigo Vespucci?6. How important are the Middle Atlantic states to the economy of the United States?7. What are the two principal river systems in Canada?8. Why is Australia a dry land?9. When did Ireland declare itseff a republic?10. What animal is regarded as a national symbol of New Zealand?名词解释(4题,每题5分,共2O分)1. The Industrial Revolution in Britain2. English Renaissance3. Separation of powers4. No taxation without representation论述题(1题,共1O分) What were the causes of the rapid growth of capitalism in the US after the American Civil War?参考答案 1-10 BAACD DCBAD,11-20 BCDAC BDADC,21-30 CCBBC AADAB,31-40 DCBAB BBDDA简答题1. They are Great Britain and Ireland.2. The Iberians.3. Rupert Murdoch' s News International.4. Because America's Atlantic coast faces the developed countries of Western Europe and its Pacific coast and Hawaii give the nation an approach to the Far East and Australasia5. Because he proved that the land Christopher Columbus discovered was not India, but a new continent6. They are very important because there are highly industrialized areas in these states.7. They are the Mackenzie and the St Lawrence.8. Because more than half of Australia is covered by drylands.9. 1949.10. The kiwi.名词解释1. The Industrial Revolution in Britain refers to the mechanization of industry and the consequent changes in social and economic organization in Britain in the late 18a and early 19th centuries.2. Politically, the English Renaissance marks the end of the period of civil war among the old feudal aristocracy in mid 15th century, and the establishment of a modem, efficient, centralized state. Technically, the date is close to that of the introduction of printing into England. And culturally, the first important period in England was'the reign Of the second Tudor monarch, Henry VIII.3. Separation of power is the concept thoaght to be the safeguards of the US government. The government is divided into three branches: the legislative, the executive and the judicial. Each branch has part of the powers but not all the power. And each branch of government can check or block the actions of the other branches. The three branches are thus in balance; This is called "checks and balances".4. No taxation without representation is the declaration by the colonists in the thirteen British colonies in North America. It means that, without their representatives taking part in decision-making, they had no obligation to pay taxes to Britain, the mother country of the colonies.论述题Causes of the rapid growth of capitalism in the US after the Civil War:A. With the war over, the United States again achieved a stable political environment. As a result, beth foreign and domestic capital became available for investment.B. Black slaves were free, and waves of European and Asian immigration poured into the US. So there was enough labor supply for the development of industries.C. Science and invention played a very important role in the acceleration of America' s industrial developmentD. The federal government put high taxes on foreign imports, which encore-aged Americans to buy American - made goods.E. The United States was rich in natural resources.编辑:sc

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