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英语(二)辅导

2006-01-18 00:00:00 |  作者: cheng |   来源: 中国考试  |  查看:

I、试卷结构

英语(二)试卷客观题部分
第一部分 词汇与结构 共10小题,每小题1分,共10分
第二部分 完形填空 1篇短文,共10小题,每小题1分,共10分
第三部分 阅读理解 共3篇短文,每篇短文5小题,共15小题,每小题2分,共30分
英语(二)试卷主观题部分
第四部分 单词拼写 共20词,每词0.5分,共10分
第五部分 词形填空 共10小题,每小题1分,共10分
第六部分单句中译英 共5句,每句3分,共15分
第七部分段落英译中 共1篇短文,共15分

本文共分五大部分:语法结构与词汇、完形填空、阅读理解、汉译英和英译汉。语法结构与词汇部分针对考试的第一、第四和第五部分;完形填空和阅读理解分别是第二和第三部分;汉译英针对第六部分;英译汉针对第七部分。本文还提供了试卷中除单词拼写以外的各部分练习,仅供考生增大练习力度,获得题感。

Ⅱ、各部分辅导与练习
第一部分 语法结构与词汇

一、测试形式
单项选择、单词汉译英、填写语法形式。单项选择主要用来考查句子结构(连词和介词的用法)和考生对词汇(主要为词的搭配和惯用语)的掌握;单词汉译英要求根据所给的首字母将汉语词译成英语;填写语法形式的重点是动词的时态、语态、虚拟语气、非限定形式、形容词和副词的级等,要求按照句子的意思将给出的原形词变成适当的形式。各部分题型不同,测试重点各异,考生要明确这一点。

二、语法必备知识点
1.掌握常用时态的形式和用法,尤其要熟悉与某一时态相关的时间状语,如already,yet,recently,just,once,so far,for+时间,since引导的从句等,要与现在完成时连用;注意时态的呼应,如主句是将来时,从句可以是现在完成时、一般现在时;主句是过去时,从句可以是过去进行时、过去完成时、一般过去时、过去将采时;熟悉时态替代的用法,从句在表示将来时间概念时,视情况用一般现在时或现在进行时替代等等。

2.根据主语谓语的施动与被动关系确定应用主动语态还是被动语态。注意:考查语态常常与考查时态甚至非谓语动词以及主谓一致问题同时进行。

3.熟练掌握虚拟语气的形式和用法。
1)带扩条件句的主从句动词形式呼应:

假设类型
从句谓语形式
主句谓语形式
与现在事实相反
did/were
would/could do
与过去事实相反
had done
would/could have done
与将来事实相反
should do
would/could do

2)当suggest,propose,recommend,order,insist,request,demand,require等表示建议、愿望、请求、命令的句子作谓语且后接宾语从句时,从句的谓语用(should+)do。

3)……would/had rather(that)+从句 did
It is time(that)+从句 did

4)If only…did/had done…但愿…就好了

5)If it were/had not been for…若不是…

4.牢记下列动词要求不定式作宾语:afford,agree,attempt,decide,fail,expect,intend,plan,promise,pretend,determine,refuse,tend,offer

5.牢记下列动词要求接动名词作宾语:acknowledge, admit, appreciate, avoid, consider, delay, dislike, hate, deny, enjoy, escape , finish, keep, mind, practice, resist, stand, risk

6.分词的句法功能相当于形容词或副词,现在分词表示主动意义、过去分词表示被动意义。

7.了解不定式和分词作状语的区别:
1)不定式作目的状语,所用句型为:in order to do…,…so as to do…

2)不定式作程度状语,所用句型为:so/such…as to do…,…too…to do…,…enough to do…

3)分词作时间、伴随、原因、方式状语,多数情况下用逗号与句子的主要部分隔开,可以根据这个特点确定要填写的形式或正确选项。

8.考生还应注意,无论不定式、动名词还是分词,都有主动与被动的问题,作题时要留意。

9.形容词在句中作定语或表语;副词作状语,修饰除了名词以外的其他词。根据它们的句法功能确定应填写的语法形式。

10.比较级通常在有比较对象和比较范围的情况下出现。两者相比用比较级形式,三者以上才用最高级,还需要留意单音节词和多音节词比较级形式的构成。牢记…the more…,the more…句型。

11.引导定语从句的关系代词或关系副词应根据先行词的意义及在从句中的作用确定。

12.引导状语从句的从属连词应根据主从句的逻辑意义关系来选择。

13.如果先行词是fact,news,idea,balief, evidence,opinion等抽象意义的词时,用that引导同位语从句。

三、词汇测试重点
1.词形相近词??考查考生对单词记忆的准确性;

2.词义相近词??考查考生对词义的确切理解;

3.词义不同但搭配相同或词义相近但搭配不同词??考查考生对词的习惯用法和固定搭配的掌握,对短语的熟悉程度;

4.介词及介词词组的意义和用法;

5.常用的构词知识及单词的准确拼写。

四、语法、词汇专项训练
语法结构与词汇
1. Public goods are those things __________ enjoyment nobody can be effectively excluded.
A. in which B. whose
C. from whose D. what

2. __________ otherwise directed by a doctor, this medicine should be taken three times a day.
A. Even if B. Unless
C. Except that D. As

3. Janet, younger than any of her classmates, and accordingly less experienced in life, was __________ one of the bright students in the class.
A. just B. however C. anyhow D. nonetheless

4. I had been puzzled over the problem for over an hour without any result __________ all at once the solution flashed across my mind.
A. which B. when C. where D. what

5. It is essential that the temperature not be raised to a point __________ the substance formed may become unstable.
A. that B. on which C. where D. when

6. The characteristic of elasticity is __________ distinguishes rubber from plastic and fibers.
A. what B. that C. which D. where

7. Most children with healthy appetites are ready to eat almost anything that is offered them and a child rarely dislikes food __________ it is badly cooked.
A. if B. unless C. that D. until

8. It was several minutes later __________ I was aware of what was happening.
A. since B. after C. while D. before

9. You __________ more patient with that customer; I am sure that selling him the watch was a possibility.
A. should have been B. should be
C. must be D. needed to be

10. Statistics from the developed countries suggest that it is only when people's living standards begin to rise __________ to fall.
A. can birth rate begin
B. that birth rate begins
C. that birth rate should begin
D. then birth rate begins

11. The national parks are very important for preserving many animals, who would __________ run the risk of becoming distinct.
A. instead B. nevertheless C. therefore D. otherwise

12. Children in the United States are exposed to many influences __________ those of their families.
A. more than B. other than C. rather than D. better than

13. She can hardly avoid making mistakes in her homework, __________ hard she tries.
A. for B. as C. how D. however

14. Why is there__________ traffic on the streets at noon than in the evening?
A. less B. fewer C. little D. few

15. Christmas is a Christian holy day usually celebrated on December 25th __________ the birth of Jesus Christ.
A. in accordance with B. in terms of
C. in favor of D. in honor of

16. It is simple-minded to expect that any society can resolve all the social problems it is faced with __________
A. for long B. in and out
C. once for all D. by nature

17. __________ all visible lights, red light has the longest and violet the shortest wavelength.
A. Among B. Of C. For D. To

18. The position in which a mother holds her baby __________ her body when resting is rather revealing.
A. against B. near
C. in front of D. behind

19. __________ the traffic jam, we would have caught our train.
A. But for B. Because of
C. By means of D. Due to

20. __________ I phoned the police, then I made a list of what had been stolen, and then I made myself a cup of tea.
A. At first B. First
C. In the first place D. At the start

21. With some effective measures adopted in the workshop, the workers are safe __________ getting injured.
A. in B. from C. against D. without

22. The teaching method should be varied at different stages of learning __________ achieving better results.
A. in order to B. as a result of
C. with a view to D. in relation to

23. He thought he could talk Mr. Robinson __________ buying some expensive equipment.
A. on B. of C. round D. into

24. It has been estimated that the earth's surface temperature has increased __________ one quarter to three quarters of a degree since 1805.
A. to B. by C. at D. with

25. Why this otherwise excellent newspaper allows such an article to be printed is __________ me.
A. above B. outside C. beside D. beyond

26. The chairman says he needs an assistant that he can __________ to take care of problems that may occur in his absence.
A. hang on B. count on C. hold on D. come on

27. We must take part in physical labor in order to __________ ourselves more closely with the working people.
A. identify B. link C. combine D. involve

28. The patient has been __________ of the safety of the operation.
A. assured B. guaranteed C. promised D. confirmed

29. This kind of disease has been practically __________ in thirteen countries, including the United States, and is under attack in many others.
A. wiped out B. died out C. put out D. kept out

30. Although we had told them not to keep us waiting, they made no __________ to speed up deliveries.
A trial B. attempt C. action D. progress

31. They were having a violent quarrel but __________ when I came in.
A. broke up B. cut off C. broke off D. hung up

32. The tourist is prevented from entering a country if he does not have __________ passport.
A. an operative B. a valid C. an efficient D. an effective

33. One study found that job applicants who make more eye contact are __________ as more alert, dependable, confident and responsible.
A. referred B. perceived C. recommended D. thought

34. Americans are highly mobile, and therefore may find it difficult to become deeply __________ with others.
A. evolved B. associated C. mixed D. involved

35. The magician picked several people __________ from the viewers and asked them to help him with the performance.
A. by chance B. at random
C. on occasion D. on average

36. All experts agree that the most hnportant consideration with diet drugs is __________ carefully the risks and benefits.
A. weighing B. valuing
C. evaluating D. distinguishing

37. My sister and I have __________ ideas on how to raise childrea.
A. irregular B. diverse
C. irrelevant D. resistant

38. The government has devoted a larger slice of its national __________ to agriculture than most other countries.
A. budget B. resources C. potential D. economy

39. When they asked him al)out it, he said it was no __________ of theirs and wouldn't ten them anything.
A. connection B. relation C. association D. concern

40. Poor health and lack of money may both be __________ to educational progress.
A. hostilities B. scarcities
C. strains D. barriers

41. Mary wants to study medicine but she is not very clever. I don't think she is __________ it.
A. up to B. for C. within D. towards

42. There is a marked __________ between the standard of living in the north of the country and the south, __________ it.
A. contact B. contract C. contrast D. contest

43. As your instructor advised you ought to spend your time on something __________ researching into.
A. precious B. worth C. worthy D. valuable

44. __________ to some parts of South America is still difficult, because parts of the continent are still covered with thick forests.
A. Route B. Access C. Path D. Voyage

45. He does not __________ as a teacher of English as his pronunciation is terrible.
A. equal B. match C. qualify D. fit

46. How large a proportion of the sales of stores near tourist sites can be __________ to tourist spending ?
A. attributed B. applied
C. contributed D. attached

答案
1-10 CBDBC ABDAB,11-20 DBDAD CBAAB,21-30 BCDBD BAAAB,31-40 CBBDB ABADD,41-46 ACBBCA


47. Everybody considered it a pity __________ (miss) the performance. I would rather have gone to see it.

48. When the bell sounded, the boys rushed out of the classroom, each __________ (carry) a number of new books under his arm.

49. After __________ (interview) for the job, you will be required to take a language test.

50. Another agreement __________ (sign) tomorrow will concern academic exchange between the two universities.

51. We'd better wait till December 15. Bill __________ (have) his exam by then, so he'll be able to enjoy himself.

52. Heart disease is said __________ (be) the number-one killer of men over the past few years in the U. S.

53. Don't argue with him any longer. You are only wasting your breath __________ (try) to win him over to your side.

54. By last year, the lO-year old Hope Project __________ (help) 2.29 million dropouts in poor areas return to school.

55. A mother will arrive at the discovery that her baby is more at peace if __________ (hold) on the left against her heart than on the right.

56. The group has taken a militant position on the issue of raising the wages and is refusing to compromise, __________ (make) the situation more serious.

57. The weeds and tall grass in that yard make the house look as if it __________ (be) vacant for quite some time.

58. While the general public tend to agree that animals should be treated humanely, most people are unlikely to give up eating meat or __________ (wear) goods made from leather and wool.

59. The light, which otherwise __________ (disturb) the invalid, was excluded from his room by means of window blinds.

60. Whenever we hear of a natural disaster, even in the distant part of the world, we feel sympathy for the people __________ (affect).

61 The names Jimmy, Billy and Bobby __________ (end) in "y" are used especially for children, but they often continue into adult life.

62. It is time we __________ (start) to think seriously about the growing shortage of raw materials in the world today.

63. There __________ (be) little rain in the past sixty days, the ground is dry and people feel uncomfortable.

64. Suppose you tried to lift a l O0-pound rock two feet, you __________ (do) more work than if you lifted it one feet.

65. It was not discussed or proposed that I __________ (be) invited to become Chairman.

66. Were he to leave today, he __________ (get) there by Friday.

答案:
47. to have missed
48. carrying
49. being interviewed
50. to be signed
51. will have had
52. to have been
53. trying
54. had helped
55. held
56. making
57. had been
58. wearing
59. would have disturbed
60. affected
61. ending
62. started
63. having been
64. would do
65. (should) be
66. would get

第二部分 完形填空
完形部分要求考生在阅读一篇大约200字左右设有十个空的短文后,在全面理解文章内容的基础上,从给出的四个选项中选择一个最佳答案,使短文的内容和结构完整合理。英语(二)考试大纲指出完形题目的考查重点为语法,如一致关系、动词时态、语态、名词的数、代词、形容词和副词的级、连词、介词等,但也可能考一些常用词和惯用语的用法。根据对近年来考题的观察,该部分考查对上下文理解、词汇使用和语篇关系的题目有上升趋势,这就要求考生既有扎实的词汇、语法知识又要有一定的语篇逻辑知识。完形填空的短文选自教材以外的文章。文章题材涉及经济、文化、交际、旅游、科普及社会生活各方面;体裁多为条理清楚、观点鲜明的说明议论文。

一、完形填空的三种题型
完形填空的题型大致可划分为三大类,即:词汇型、语法型和语篇逻辑型。完形填空主要测试考生下列5种知识和能力:

1.词汇知识:考查考生对词汇的辨识、辨析、用法、搭配及词组的掌握能力;

2.语法知识:考查考生对大纲中所要求的语法知识在篇章中的掌握和运用能力;

3.语篇逻辑知识:考查考生对语篇中句与句、段与段之间逻辑衔接关系的辨识、理解及运用能力;

4.综合运用词汇、语法及篇章知识理解文章的能力;

5.文化背景知识及常识。

词汇题
词汇型题是完形填空中题目最多的题型,主要从下面两个方面考察考生的词汇知识:

1.词汇的辨析和辨识
这种题目测试考生的词汇量及用词的准确性,题目所给的四个选项在词义和词形方面或者互不相关,或者相近或易混,考生需要根据上下文线索和文章大意通过辨识词义,或辨异作出正确的判断。

例:Often when one listens to a symphonic concert on the radio,he is 1 to direct the orchestra(管弦乐队)even though he knows there is a 2 conductor on the job.(04年1月)
1.[A]attracted [B]involved [C]inteiested [D]tempted
2.[A]sufficient [B]tentative [C]competent [D]competitive

由于短文主要讲述人们的心理活动与肌肉活动有密切关系,因此人们在欣赏音乐时会情不自禁地伴有全身活动。第1题考查考生对动词的辨识和用法,显然B和C在句中不符合用法,所以D既符合语法要求也符合文章大意;第2题测试考生形容词的意思,通常用competent形容“有能力、能干的”人,因此选C。

例:Today the place Colter 3 is known as Yellow stone Park.(03年10月)
3.[A]initiated [B]invented [C]created [D]discovered

Colter这个地方一直存在,后来被人们发现因此选D。

2.词汇的搭配和使用
这种搭配主要指的是各种固定搭配或习惯用法。它可以有各种各样的形式:动词+介词、名词+介词或介词+名词、形容词+介词、动词+副词、名词词组、介词词组、动词词组等。这一部分可以说一直是英语学习的难点,也经常是测试的重点。因此,考生在平时的学习中应该有意识地在这方面多下功夫,注意日积月累,积少成多。

例1:(It)may be said that we think with our muscles in somewhat the same 1 that we listen to music with our bodies.(04年1月)
1.[A]means [B]method [C]approach [D]way

该题考查way的搭配和用法,答案为D,其他不符合用法。

例2:"Never trust a person who can't look you 2 the eye."(03年4月)
2.[A]to [B]in [C]at [D]out of

短语look sb.in the eye/face意思为“说话时直视某人的脸”,故选B,其他选择不符合文意或用法。

语法题
语法题考查考生对语法知识的的掌握程度及运用能力。做题时,考生应该首先对空格所在的句子进行句法结构分析,以确保句子的语法准确无误。完形填空要求考生掌握以下句法结构知识:

a.主谓一致关系:如,To picture economic factors as the major or most important reason goes against…

b.动词和非谓语动词的时态、语态:如:In l931,H.F,Clark, an economist, stated that "proper information regarding wages, if sufftciently impressed upon people, will lead to…; He is said to have gone to America; Japan is a small country with few natural resources. Despite this, Japanese productivity, the rate at which goods are produced, has increased more than eleven times in the past thirty years.

c. 虚拟语气: It's important that the company and title be noticeably positioned; Had you come earlier, you would have met him.

d.各种从句:如定语从句、状语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句等。如:This means that the supply and demand of worker have much to do with wages,which in turn influence people…;While this definition is clear and simple,much more needs to be said.

e.倒装句、强调句和省略句等特殊句型。To the Japanese,on the other hand,work is the central interest of one's life;it’s here that a Japanese establishes his identity.

f.句子的平衡结构:特别要注意并列连词两边的部分必须是同一语言层次结构,如:Even so,communication is a word that most people have difficulty defining and talking about.并列的是两个动名词。

g.代词的性、数、格。

h.冠词的用法。

语篇逻辑题
语篇逻辑题考查考生对语篇的理解和逻辑推理能力。上下文逻辑关系主要依靠使用逻辑连词来表达,这些连词也称信号词,包括使上下文连贯的连词、副词或介词词组。这些衔接词通常表示作者的思路方向,可以帮助考生判断句子各成分之间、句与句之间以及段与段之间的逻辑关系。

例1:Strange 1 this behavior may be,there is a very good reason for it. (04年1月)
[A] as [B] though [C] if [D] unless
主从句之间有让步关系,又因为从句为倒装句,因此选A。

例2 :Japan is a small country with few natural resources. 2 this, Japanese productivity, the rate at which goods are produced, has increased more than eleven times in the past thirty years. (03年7月)
[A] Because of [B] As for [C] Although [D] Despite

主从句之间有转折关系,又根据句子结构,因此选D。

鉴于完形填空中的三种类型题目,答题时既要考虑空格所在句子的语法、语义,又要结合上下文进行思考。因此,考生在做选择填空时,首先要快速通读全文,了解文章大意及风格、题材等,从总体上把握全文。然后根据具体某个空格前后的句子结构、语法关系、搭配关系以及上下文的意思来确定应选答案。答案选出后,还要全篇通读短文,改正可能出现的错误,尤其要注意时态、语态的一致,主谓一致、单复数一致等。

二、完形填空的具体解题步骤
1.通读全文,把握文章主题
把握文章主题是迅速而准确地确定完形填空答案的基础。因此,做完形填空时,首先应忽略空格,将全文迅速浏览一遍,掌握文章主题句和各段主题句。一般说来,短文的第一句往往就是整篇文章的主题句,而且通常是没有空格的完整句,这样便于考生对短文的主题和中心有整体和综合的把握。第一遍以看懂内容大意为主,可以填人那些显而易见或很有把握的题目,如固定词组和某些句子结构等,可以不看选项而根据语感处理一些题目。总之,要想把所有选择填空做正确,仅仅阅读一遍短文是不够的。多读一遍短文,或许你的解题思路就会更加豁然开朗。

2.细读短文,认真填空
第一遍浏览式阅读目的是在语篇上掌握文章的主题大意。第二遍应该是细读短文,弄清每句话的意思、句与句的关系、段与段的关系等。认真分析每个题目,即把着眼点从语篇转移到具体带有问题的语句。如果有一时不能确定的题目,可以先做有把握的题目,最后再回来推敲那些难题。

做题时也可以根据题型来确定解决方法。如果选择项是一些同义词、近义词,或者是常用搭配,那么,此题是测试考生的词汇知识;如果原句缺少主语或谓语、或缺少其他成分,预选择项又是一些关系代词、动词、或者是一些其他的非谓语动词形式,那么,此题测试的是考生的语法知识。弄清楚题型之后,就可以按照各题型特点做题了。如果是语法题型,考生就要从语法的角度进行分析,套用语法规则,问题就会迎刃而解;如果是词汇型题目,考生就应进行词义辨析,确定选择项与原句的搭配正确与否;如果是逻辑篇章题目,考生就要结合上下文,推测出句子之间的逻辑关系。

然而,无论做哪种类型的题目,首先必须将短文读懂,在理解的基础上分析词法与句法,并利用常识解题。

3.复读短文,查漏补缺
所有的题目做完之后,考生应该把短文从头至尾再读一遍,逐空检查,这一遍仍以文章内容为主,注意答案是否与全文的中心内容一致、全文是否通顺流畅、语法是否正确、语义是否连贯、结构是否正确、用词是否贴切、是否符合逻辑、是否符合英美人的表达习惯等等。总之,在最后的检查过程中,既要注意对全文的宏观把握,又要注意对局部的微观控制。

总之,完形填空的特点就是综合性强,涉及面广。考生在完成一套完形填空题后,除了核对答案外,更重要的是自己认真分析做错的题目,追究错误原因,以便今后不重复同样的错误。同样,考生在做完形填空时,要注意加深对正确语言的印象,多记正确的用法以增强语感。考生只有综合提高阅读、词汇和语法等方面的能力才能得心应手地完成完形填空题目。

三、完形填空专项练习
练习一
Most worthwhile careers require some kind of specialized training. Ideally, therefore, the choice of an 1 should be made even before the choice of a curriculum in high school. Actually, 2, most people make several job choices during their working lives, 3 because of economic and industrial changes and partly to improve 4 positions. The "one perfect job" does not exist. Young people should therefore enter into a broad 5 training program that will 6 them for a field of work rather than for a single 7.

Unfortunately many young people have to make career plans 8 benefit of help from a competent advisor or psychologist. Knowing 9 about the occupational world, or themselves for that matter, they choose their lifework on a hit-or-miss basis. Some drift from job to job. Others 10 to work in which they are unhappy and for which they are not fitted.

1. A. engagement B. entertainment C. occupation D. objective
2. A. therefore B. however C. though D. thus
3. A. entirely B. mainly C. largely D. partly
4. A. its B. his C. their D. our
5. A. flexible B. temporary C. extensive D. specific
6. A. fit B. make C. take D, leave
7. A. way B. job C. means D. company
8. A. to B. for C. with D. without
9. A. few B. little C. much D. more
10. A. stick B. hold C. hang D. sting

练习二
Geography is the study of the relationship between people and the land. Geographers compare and contrast various places on the earth. But they also 11 beyond the individual places and consider the earth as a whole. The English word geography means "to describe the earth." 12 geography books focus on a small area like a town or city. Others 13 a state, a region, a nation, or an entire continent. Many geography books deal with the whole earth. Another way to divide the study of geography is to 14 between physical geography and cultural geography. The former focuses on the natural world; the 15 starts with human beings and studies how human beings and their environment act 16 each other. But when geography is considered as a single subject, 17 branch can neglect the other. A geographer might be described as one who observes, records, and explains the 18 between places. If all places 19 alike, there would be little need for geographers. We know, however, that no two places are exactly the same. Geography, 20 is a point of view, a special way of looking place.

11. A. pass B. reach C. go D. set
12. A. Some B. Many C. Most D. Few
13. A. concern with B. deal with C. set about D. figure out
14. A. distinguish B. separate C. tell D. identify
15. A. second B. later C. next D. latter
16. A. on B. for C. as D. to
17. A. neither B. either C. one D. each
18. A. exceptions B. similarities C. differences D. divisions
19. A. being B. are C. be D. were
20. A. still B. then C. nevertheless D. moreover

答案:
1-10 CBDCAABDBA,11-20 CABADABCDB


第三部分 阅读理解
一、考纲要求分析与考试重点概述

阅读理解部分重点考查考生的阅读理解能力,要求考生在阅读完短文之后从选择项中找出正确的答案。阅读理解部分考查的技能包括:
a.理解词和短语的意义;
b.理解句子表达的内容和内容之间的联系;
c.掌握文章的主题思想和大意;
d.理解句子和文章的内在含意及推理;
e.领会文章作者的观点和态度。

这五个方面的能力实际上包括了四个层次:
1,对词汇和词组的理解;
2.对语句的理解;
3.对整篇和各段主题的理解;
4.对字里行间意思的理解

阅读理解部分由3段短文构成,每篇文章长约250至350词左右,短文均选自教材以外的文章,难度相当于下册教材后半部分的课文。短文中如有个别生词超出教材词汇表和大纲的词汇附表并且影响理解时,试卷中将用汉语注出词意。每段短文之后都有5个问题,每个问题后都有四个多项选择题,要求考生根据对短文的理解选出正确的答案。每小题2分,阅读部分共计15小题,30分。阅读理解所占的分数和权重最大,是考试中的重要部分。

阅读理解文章的体裁通常为说明文和议论文,有时也有叙事文。题材包括政治、社会、经济、历史、地理、科普、环境、文化、文学、交际、教育、健康和交通等方面。

二、阅读理解部分的主要题型和答题方法
1.主旨题:包括文章主旨题和段落主旨题,题目通常以以下方式出现:
a. The passage is mainly about
b. The main topic of the passage is
c. The proper subject of this passage is
d. What's the main point the author makes in the passage?
e. The best title for this passage is
f. The purpose of this passage is to

例如01年下半年阅读理解的第一段短文,每段的第一句话都是该段的主题句:
In the past industries had more freedom than they have now, and they did not need to be as careful as they must today. They did not need to worry a lot about the safety of the new products that they developed. They did not have to pay much attention to the health and safety of the people who worked for them. Often new products were dangerous for the people who used them; often conditions in the work place had very bad effects on the health of the workers.

Of course sometimes there were real disasters which attracted the attention of governments and which showed need for changes. Also scientists who were doing research into the health of workers sometimes produced information which governments could not ignore. At such times, there were inquiries into the causes of the disaster or the problems. New safety rules were often introduced as a result of these inquiries; however, the new rules came too late to protect the people who had died or become seriously ill.

Today many governments have special departments which protect customers and workers. In the U. S., for example, there is a department which tests new airplanes and gives warnings about possible problems. It also makes the rules that aircraft producers must follow. Another department controls the foods and drugs that companies sell. A third department looks at the places where people work, and then reports any companies that are breaking laws which protect the health and safety of workers.

这是一篇说明文,围绕工业生产和工业产品消费的安全问题展开。根据每段的主题句,可以看出前两段主要说明以前的工业生产比现在更自由,出现事故后才得到政府的关注,而第三段说明现在许多政府专门设有保护消费者和工人的各种部门。由此可以得出以下两小题的答案分别为C和A。

1. The main topic of the passage is
[Al industries in the past and at present
[B] changes in the development of industries
[C] the protection of industrial workers and customers
[D] the freedom of industries

2. The purpose of this passage is to
[A] inform [B] criticize [C] entertain [D] persuade

回答主旨题需要考生读完并理解全文或全段,所以考生可以把主旨题留到做完其他细节题对文章有更深刻理解之后再做。由于文章的首段和末段、段落的首句和末句都是中心思想出现最频繁的地方,应该引起考生的特别关注。另外,作者也经常用一些表示转折或总结归纳的信号词来表达文章的中心思想,这也是主旨题的一个出处。

2,细节和事实题:这是阅读题目中比例最大的一类题,题目方式为:
a. According to the passage/author, what/who/where/when/why/how…?
b. Which of the following is true/false?
c. We can learn from the 1st/2nd paragraph that __________.

以02年下半年阅读理解的第三篇短文为例,注意斜体字的句子是段落的主题句:

If you asked people today why they used the telephone to communicate with their friends or why they turned to the television for entertainment, they would look at you as if you were crazy. We don't think about a telephone or a television or a car as being rare. These things have become such an essential part of life that they are no longer noticed, let alone remarked upon.

In the same way, within a decade no one will notice the World Wide Web. it will just be there, an essential part of life. It will be a reflex to nm to the Web for shopping, education, entertainment and communication, just as it is natural today to pick up the telephone to talk to someone.

There is an enormous interest in the Web. Yet it is still in its infancy. The technology and the speed of response are leaping forward. This will move more and more people to the Web as part of their everyday lives. Eventually, everyone's business card will have an electronic mail address. Every lawyer, every doctor and every business -- from large to small -- will be connected.

To predict that it will take over ten years for these changes to happen is probably pessimistic. We usually overestimate what we can do in two years and underestimate what we can do in ten. The Web will be as much a way of life as the car by 2008. Probably before.

这是一篇关于互联网前景的说明议论文,前两段通过讲述电视和电话的普及性预测十年后互联网也会同样渗透到人们生活的各方面;第三段预测人们的浓厚兴趣推动互联网的发展;基于前三段的说明,作者在第四段预测,不到十年,互联网就会给人们带来各种变化。这篇短文共有如下三个事实性题目,根据短文第二段首第一和二句可以判断第1题答案为A;根据第三段第三句可以得出第2题答案为B;根据第四段第二句,可以判断第3题答案为D。

1. According to the text, in ten year's time the Web will
[A] have become part of people's everyday life
[B] be as cheap as the telephone of today
[C] have lost its interest to people
[D] no longer be an infant

2. Technology for the Web
[A] has passed its infancy
[B] is developing at a very rapid rate
[C] has naturally moved more people together
[D] is responding to the challenge of the world

3. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
[A] The development of the Web has just started.
[B] It will probably take less than ten years for the Web to become common.
[C] Eventually the Web will be able to link all businesses together.
[D] We are usually too optimistic when we talk about what we can do in ten years.

细节或事实性题目涉及面广,要求考生能够根据题干和选项的主要意思快速、准确地在原文定位并判定题目的答案。对付这类题目,考生要首先读懂题干,并根据题干回到原文找到相关的具体语句或段落,仔细分析归纳原文的含义,斟酌选项并做出正确判断。对于像第3题这样判断正误的题目,要求考生认真阅读四个选项,排除三个与文章不相符的答案,最终确定一个答案,这种题是细节题中比较麻烦的一种,一般留到最后处理。

3.词汇或短语题:这类考核考生词汇知识或理解上下文中词语的能力,题目类型如:
a. What is the meaning of ___________ in paragraph 2?
b. The word __________ in Paragraph 3 probably means ___________
c. What does the author probably mean by ___________ ?
d. By " ___________ ", the author means ___________.
e. According to the passage, what is " ___________ "?

首先以01年下半年的第二篇文章为例,这是一篇叙述文,讲述一个丈夫如何努力做一个好丈夫。其中一题考查对短语No ifs,ands or buts的理解,这个短语出现在故事的开头。考生可以根据made a pledge(发誓)、try to be a loving husband and father(努力做一个有爱心的丈夫和父亲)以及totally loving(完全地有爱心的)等线索,判断此题的答案为D。

I made a pledge to myself on the way down to the vacation beach cottage. For two weeks I would try to be a/oving husband and father. Totally loving. No ifs, ands or buts.
1. In the first paragraph, "No ifs, ands or buts" probably means
[ A ] Unintentionally [ B ] Inevitably
[ C ] Impressively [ D ] Unconditionally

词汇或短语题要求考生对单词或短语进行解释或说明,考查考生通过上下文判断词义和句意的能力,因此考生必须根据上下文的内容对所考查词语的意思进行推测。

4.引申题,如:

a. We can infer from the text that
b. Paragraph 2 implies that
c. It's implied/indicated/suggested in Paragraph 2 that
d. The passage suggests that
e. It can be concluded from the passage that
f. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

以01年下半年第一篇阅读为例,请看短文的第二段和相关的题目:

Of course sometimes there were real disasters which attracted the attention of governments and which showed need for changes. Also scientists who were doing research into the health of workers sometimes produced information which governments could not ignore. At such times, there were inquiries into the causes of the disaster or the problems. New safety rules were often introduced as a result of these inquiries; however, the new rules came too late to protect the people who had died or become seriously ill.

根据上文可知,从前也发生过引起政府关注的灾难,科学家有时也给出令政府不容忽视的信息,这时,政府会调查灾难的起因,调查的结果是制定新的安全制度。于是,可以得出下面题目的答案为B。

1. It's implied in Paragraph 2 that years ago governments
[A] paid much attention to the results of scientific discoveries
[B] seldom introduced safety laws before disasters occurred
[C] hardly ever looked into the causes of tragedies
[D] imposed safety rules as soon as disasters occurred

引申题主要测试考生理解上下文逻辑关系的能力,考生要对文章提供的已知信息进行分析、综合和推理以理解作者字里行间的言外之意。

上述任何一种题型实质上都是对考生在词汇、或语句、或主旨和主题或字里行间某一层次上理解的检验。考生应该在大量的阅读练习中学会正确的阅读方法,积极扩展词汇量,培养理解难句、复杂句的能力,最终提高阅读理解能力。

三、阅读理解专项练习
练习一

The case for college has been accepted without question for more than a generation: All high school graduates ought to go, says conventional wisdom and statistical evidence, because college will help them earn more money, become "better" people, and learn to be more responsible citizens than those who don't go.

But college has never been able to work its magic for everyone. And now that close to haft our high school graduates are attending colleges, those who don't fit the pattern are becoming more numerous, and more obvious. College graduates are selling shoes and driving taxies; college students interfere with each other's experiments and write false letters of recommendation in the intense competition for admission to graduate school. Others find no stimulation in their studies, and drop out often encouraged by college administrators.

Some observers say the fault is with the young people themselves they are spoiled and they are expecting too much. But that cannot explain all campus unhappiness. Others blame the state of the world, and they are partly right. We've been told that young people have to go to college because our economy can't absorb an army of untrained eighteen-year-olds. But disappointed graduates are learning that it can no longer absorb an army of trained twenty-two-year-olds, either.

Some adventuresome educators and campus watchers have openly begun to suggest that college may not be the best, the proper, the only place for every young person after the completion of high school. Perhaps college doesn't make people intelligent, ambitious, happy, liberal, or quick to learn things maybe it's just the other way round, and intelligent, ambitious, happy, liberal, quick-learning people are merely the ones who have been attracted to college in the first place. This is heresy to those of us who have been brought up to believe that if a little school is good, more has to be much better. But contrary evidence is beginning to mount up.

1. According to the author
A. people used to question the value of college education
B. people used to have full confidence in higher education
C. all high school graduates went to college
D. very few high school graduates chose to go to college

2. In the second paragraph, "those who don't fit the pattern" refers to
A. high school graduates who aren't suitable for college education
B. college students who are selling shoes and driving taxies
C. college students who aren't any better for their higher education
D. high school graduates who failed to be admitted to college

3. College students drop out because
A. they are disappointed with the conventional way of teaching at college
B. they are required to serve in the army
C. they lack motivation in pursuing a higher education
D. they don't like the intense competition for admission to graduate school

4. According to the passage, the problem of college education is partly because
A. society cannot provide enough jobs for properly trained college graduates
B. high school graduates do not fit the pattern of college education
C. too many students have to earn their own living
D. college administrators encourage students to drop out

5. In this passage, the author mainly argues that
A. more evidence shows college education may not be the best thing for high school graduates
B. college education is not enough if one wants to be successful C
C. college education benefits only the intelligent, ambitious, and quick-learning people
D. intelligent people may learn quickly 'if they don' t go to college

Although one might not think so from some of the criticism of it, advertising is essential to the kind of society in which people in the United Kingdom, and a very considerable proportion of the world at large, live. Advertising is necessary as a means of communicating with others, of telling them about the goods and services that are offered, and of which most of them would never get to hear at all if it were not for advertising. And advertising helps a great deal to promote a rising standard of living.

In talking about advertising, one should not think only in terms of a commercial on television, or an advertisement in the newspapers. In its widest sense, advertising includes a host of other activities such as packaging, shop displays and -- in the sense of communication even the spoken word of the salesman. After all, the roots of advertising are to be found in the market place.

For many years it was thought that it was enough to produce goods and supply services, h is only more recently that it has become increasingly understood that the production of goods is a waste of resources unless those goods can be sold at a fair price within a reasonable time span. In the competitive society in which we live, it is essential that we go out and sen what we have to offer, and advertising plays an important role in this respect, whether selling at home or in export markets.

Approximately 2 percent of the UK groins national product is spent on advertising. But it must not be trought that this advertising tries to sell goods to consumers who do not want tbem. Of course, advertising does try to attract the interest of the potential consumer, but ff the articles when purchased does not roach up to the standards that the advertising suggests that it will, it is obviously exceedingly unlikely that the article will sell well.

6. According to the passage advertising is important
A. every potential consumer in the world
B. larger countries in the world
C. people with a high standard of living
D. a large number of people in the world

7. Advertising has its origin in
A. shop window displays and the wrapping of goods
B. commercials on the television
C. the market place
D. articles in newspapers and magazines

8. People have realized that resources are wasted if goods
A. are not of Lasting value
B. are not sold at a high price
C. remain unsold for a abort time
D. remain unsold at home or abroad

9. According to the last paragraph, advertisements will promote sales if
A. there is a large demand of the goods
B. enough money is spent on advertising
C. the advertisements are well designed
D. the geods are of high quality

10. The best title of this paasago would be
A. Benefits of Advertising
B. A Brief History of Advertising in the UK
C. Limitations of Advertising
D. Production and Advertising

练习三
Time spent in a bookshop can be most enjoyable, whether you are a book-lover or merely there to buy a book as a present. You may evea have entered the shop just to find shelter from a sudden shower. Whatever the reason, you can soon become totally unaware of your surroundings. The desire to pick up a book with an attractive dust-jacket is irresistible, although this method of selection ought not to be followed, as you might end up with a rather dull book. You soon become absorbed in some book or other, and usually it is only much later that you realize you have spent far too much time there and must dash off to keep some forgotten appointment -- without buying a book, of course.

This opportunity to escape the realities of everyday life is, I think, Me main attraction of a bookshop. There are net many places where it is possible to do this. A music shop is very much like a bookshop You can wander around such places to your heart's content. If it is a good shop, no assistant will approach you with the inevitable greeting: "Cma I help you, sir?" You needn't buy anything you don't want; In a bookshop an assistant should remain in the background until you have finished browsing. Then, and only then, are his services necessary. Of course, you may want to find out where a particular section is, but when he has led you there, the assistant abould retire quietly and look as if he is not intorested in selling a single book.

You have to be careful not to be attracted by the variety of books in a bookshop. It is very easy to enter the shop looking for a book on, say aneieet coins and to come out carrying a copy of the latest best-selling novel and paxhape a book about brass-rubbing -- something which had only vaguely interested you up till then. This volume on the subject, however, happened to be so well illustrated mad the part of the text you read proved so interesting that you just had to buy it. This sort of thing can be very dangerous. Apart from running up a huge account, you can waste a great deal of time wandering from section to section. Book-sellers must be beth long-suffering and indulgent.

11. You may spend too much time in a bookshop because
A. the dust-jackets are very attractive
B. you start reading one of the books
C. it is raining outside
D. you have to make sure you can't buy a dull book as a present

12. In a good bookshop,
A. nobody takes may notice of you
B. the assistant greets you in a friendly way
C. your heart is contented
D. you feel that you are in a music shop

13. An assistant should help you
A. as soon as you have entered a shop
B. just before you finish browsing
C. only when you have finished browsing
D. when he leads you to a particular section

14. It's very easy to enter a bookshop and buy
A. a book on ancient coins
B. a best-selling novel on brass-rubbing
C. a book that only vaguely interests you
D. a book that unexpectedly interests you

15. This passage is mainly about
A. some advice on entering a bookshop
B. how to select books in a bookshop
C. assistants' service in a bookshop
D. attractions of books in a bookshop

答案:
1-5 BCCAA,6-10 BCDDA,11-15 BACDA

第四部分 汉译英
一、考纲要求分析和汉译英的步骤.
汉译英部分要求考生将5个中文句子翻译成英语。大纲中还指出,需要译出的英语句子的语法结构不复杂,词汇也较为常用。每句包含一个语法重点或常用词组。这些句子是根据教材中的句子编写的。

鉴于大纲中所提出的“翻译的句子是根据教材中的句子所编写”以及历年真题出题情况,建议考生熟练掌握教材中带有重点语法与句型的句子,认真完成并能够真正学会表达课文后的句子翻译练习。

翻译的过程实际上就是理解原文并准确表达成译文。在这一过程中,首先要忠实于原文,全面理解原文。做汉译英翻译时,一般应经过以下步骤:

1.透彻理解原句
翻译之前仔细研读原句。

2.选择适当的词汇或短语并组织语言
选择适当的词汇和表达法根据句意搭起基本框架;应该注意的是,要以英文表达逻辑为准则来调整语句。

3.表达
在表达过程中,一定要注意从内容到语言两方面来考虑译文,尤其要注意不能扭曲原意,不能错译,不能漏译,尽量避免语法错误

4.审校
翻译审校是必不可少的环节,许多问题都是在译后校对中发现而得以改正的。而且校对应该与原文对照着进行,才能及时发现译文是否忠实原文,是否有错译漏译,并可及时改正笔误等。审校译文不仅可以查找差错,也是对译文再次进行润色加工的过程。

二、汉译英中不容忽视的方面
(一)正确恰当地选词
词汇是语言的基本材料,也是语言的核心之一。英汉词汇在表达意义的范围或程度上,在使用习惯上有许多“不对等”的地方,使我们在翻译过程中难于确定词义。做好汉译英翻译,就要选择恰当的词汇。译文好不好,能不能达意,与选词有着密切的关系,因此翻译中选词要确切。

每个词都有一定的意义,如果混淆词义,很容易造成用词不当,因此,翻译时首先需要将英汉两种词汇加以比较,透彻地掌握词语的确切含义,才能准确无误地表达思想。例如汉语中的“问题”一词含义很广,有时作疑问解,有时作困难解,有时还作关键解等等。因此英译时就得根据具体情况做不同的处理,不能都译为question或problem,例句如下:

例1:我来答复一下这个问题。
译文:Letmeanswerthisquestion.
分析:这句中的“问题”指的是疑问,也就是question that calls for an answer

例2:该地区的失业问题日趋严重。
译文:The unemployment problem in this area is getting worse.
分析:这句中的“。问题”指的是难题,因此译为problem较贴切。

例3:这个想法很好,但问题是能否实施。
译文:This is a good idea,but the point is that whether we can put it into practice.

分析:这句中的“问题”在汉语中的含义是“关键”的意思,所以既不能译为question也不能译为problem,而应译为point。

(二)选择正确的句型
在汉译英中,选择恰当的句型是处理好译文的一个关键环节。在汉译英翻译过程中,要调整原句的层次和重心,重新组织句子,用英语的行文结构采表达等价的语义,即抓住语句所表达的语义,并按照英语表达习惯表达出来。而要掌握好英文复杂而又丰富的表达手段,考生除了要掌握好简单句,并列句之外,还要对英语复合句有透彻的了解,尤其要学会正确、恰当地运用英语的从句、分词短语、不定式短语、介词短语、动词短语、独立主格、同位语短语等.

请看下面的例子:

例重:毫无疑问大家已经尽力了。
误译:It is no doubt that we all have tried our best.
分析:在这类句子中,讧后应该跟形容词,如it is certain,而名词doubt前面则应与there is连用。因此上面的句子可译为:

It is certain that we all have tried our best.或者There is no doubt that we all have tried our best.

(三)保证句子语法的正确
在汉译英中出现的语法错误是多方面的,其中尤以不能准确使用时态、语态为多,较为常见的语法错误还包括,词语多余、可数与不可数名词使用不当、单复数混淆、主谓语不一致、介词使用不当、冠词的误用、连接词的使用不恰当、比较级运用乃至拼写错误等。

三、汉译英专项练习
1.在某种程度上,他的成功是由于他的勤奋。
2.很多技术的发展都是以理论研究为基础的。
3.生物学家相信一些物种正受着灭绝的威胁。
4.在广义上,每个人做的工作都对社会有益。
5.我们应该正视工作中的困难,而不应该逃避它们。
6.道德教育是否与学生考试作弊有关,人们持不同观点。
7.这些自然灾害给这个国家的旅游业造成了很大冲击。
8.工作压力对我们健康的影响比我们意识到的更加令人不安。
9.调查结果表明,人们越来越关心环境保护这个问题了。
10.男孩比女孩有优势,在于他们身体更强壮,更不怕这样的事。

1. His success is in In part/partly due to his diligence/hard work/industry.
2. Many technological developments/advancements are based on theoretical research.
3. Biologists are convinced/believe that some species are threatened with extinction.
4. In a broad sense, the work everyone does is of social value/benefit.
5. We should face up to/confront the difficulties in work, rather than escape from them.
6. People hold/have different viewpoints/opinions on whether moral education is relevant to/has to do with students' cheating in exams.
7. These natural disasters have made/produced great impact on the industry of tourism in that country.
8. The effects of work stress on our health are for more .disturbing than we realize.
9. The survey findings indicate/show/demonstrate that people are increasingly concerned about the issue of environmental protection.
10. Boys have an advantage over girls in that boys are stronger and less afraid of such things.

第五部分 英译汉
一、考纲要求及英译汉步骤和标准概述
试题的第七部分为英译汉短文翻译,要求考生在阅读一篇短文后,将其译成正确、通顺的汉语。短文选自教材以外的文章,难度相当于下册教材后半部分的课文。英语(二)考试大纲还指出,如果短文中有个别生词超出教材词汇表和大纲的词汇附表并且影响理解时,试卷中将用汉语注出词义。英译汉翻译时,一般应经过以下步骤:

1.通读并吃透原文
仔细研读原文是着手翻译前的至关重要的一步。因为没有对上下文的理解,有时很难确定某些词汇的实际意义,只有吃透原文,才能把这些词语放到具体的上下文中去分析,才能较好地进行表达。

2.谴词造句
翻译中的谴词造句就是要根据上下文选择适当的词汇和表达手段。无论是谴词还是造句,都要以汉语的表达逻辑为准则来调整语句。

3.表达
表达的过程就是动笔完成译文的过程。

4.审校
翻译审校是必不可少的环节,它可以帮助及时发现译文错译漏译现象,并可及时改正笔误等。同时审校也是对译文再次进行润色加工的过程。

关于翻译的标准,翻译界有“信、达、雅”之说。就高自考英语(二)翻译考试要求而言,“雅”不是它的根本要求,但“信”是翻译所应遵循的首要原则。所谓的“信”,就是内容要忠实。换句话说,翻译考试要抓住两点:一是忠实;二是通顺。即既要忠实地反映原文意思,又要译文文字流畅地道。

英译汉要做到“忠实”,就在理解英文原文意思后,用汉语将同样的意思表达出来。也就是说,考生的任务是表达别人的意思,而不是自己进行创造,因此,就要力求准确地表达原作者的意思。“通顺”指的是语言。如果原文是通顺易懂的,那么译文也要尽量做到通顺、易懂。如果我们的译文真能做到既忠实于原文又通顺,也就可以说基本达到了要求。

二、英译汉专项练习

练习一
Creativity is not something one is just born with, nor is it necessarily a characteristic of high intelligence. Just because a person is highly intelligent does not mean that he uses it creatively. Creativity is the matter of using the resources one has to produce original ideas that are good for something. Unfortunately, schools have not tended to promote creativity. With strong emphasis on test scores and the development of reading, writing and mathematical skills, many educators sacrifice creativity for correct answers. The result is that children can give back information but can't recognize ways to apply it to new situations. They may know their multiplication tables, for example, but they are unable to apply them to story problems. In some schools, however, educators are recognizing the problem and are developing new approaches to teaching which should encourage creativity in their students. Some teachers are combining the basics with activities where students must use their imagination.

练习二
If you choose a career that does not fit you, you can start over. Today, growing numbers of men and women are changing careers or getting second starts in careers that have greater attraction to them. Many of those who find that their line of work is unsatisfactory re-train themselves for a different occupation. Often their new occupation is one that they overlooked when they were young or that they did not have an opportunity to pursue at that time for financial or other reasons. Job changes and career shifts occur at all ages. It has been estimated that as many as one out of four male workers between the ages of twenty and twenty-five change their lines of work. About half that number do so between the ages of twenty-five and forty-four.


三、参考译文

练习一
创造力不是与生俱来的,也不一定是高智慧/力的特征。一个人智力高并不意味着他必然能创造性地发挥/使用才智。创造性就是指能利用已有的资源想出新点子,而这些点子会给某方面带来好处。不幸的是,学校往往并未侧重发展学生的创造力。许多教育者十分看重考试分数,强调阅读、写作和数学能力,他们为追求正确答案而牺牲了对创造力的培养。其结果是,孩子们能够反馈所学的知识,却不知道如何灵活运用所学的知识。比如,他们可能了解乘法表,却不能用它来解决数学应用题。然而,在有些学校里,教育者正逐渐认识到这个问题,并致力于研究能启发学生创造力的新的教学方法。一些教师把基础知识和要求学生发挥想象力的活动结合起来。

练习二
如果你选择的职业不适合你,你可以重新开始。如今,越来越多的人们在变换职业,或者重新开始一份对他们更有吸引力的职业。其中许多人一旦发现自己所从事的行业不尽如人意,他们就重新参加培训以谋求不同的职业。这些新的职业常常是他们年轻时所忽视的,或者由于当时的经济或别的原因而没有机会从事的。职业变更在任何年龄都会发生。据估计,20岁-25岁年龄段的男性中有四分之一的人变换工作,而在25岁-44岁年龄段的比例是八分之一。

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